Varecia rubra typically inhabits tropical moist lowland forest up to 1,200 m. It has been studied in the forests of Ambatonakolahy (Rigamonti, 1993) and Andranobe (Vasey, 1997a) on the Masoala Peninsula. It is diurnal, prefers tall forest, and is often observed in the crowns of large feeding trees. Population density has been variously estimated at 6 individuals/km2 (Rakotondratsima and Kremen, 2001), 21–23 individuals/km2 (Rigamonti, 1993), and 31–54 individuals/km2 (Vasey, 1997b). Ruffed lemurs move quadrupedally through the canopy most of the time, leaping occasionally. Suspensory postures are common during feeding bouts (Vasey, 1999). These are the most frugivorous of Madagascar’s primates, with as much as 75–90% of their diet consisting of fruit. Flowers, nectar, and leaves make up the balance. Females are reported to consume more low-fiber, high protein items (young leaves and flowers) prior to giving birth and during lactation, presumably to meet the higher energy demands of reproduction (Vasey, 2000a, 2002). At Andranobe, 132 different species from 36 plant families were eaten over the course of a year (Vasey, 2000b). Reproduction varies considerably between years (Rakotondratsima and Kremen, 2001; Vasey, 2007). The mating season is May–July, with births occurring from September through early November after a gestation period of about 102 days. In captivity, litters range from one to five infants, but are usually two or three, each newborn weighing just under 100 g (Brockman et al., 1987b; Schwitzer, 2003). In the wild, mean litter size of red ruffed lemurs is 2.11 (Vasey, 2007), while in captivity it is 2.22 (Rasmussen, 1985). Field observations indicate that this species is polygamous, and that multiple individuals participate in caring for the young (Vasey, 1997a, 2007). Social organization is described as fission/fusion; communities are usually multi-male/multi-female, and number 5–31 individuals. Home ranges cover 23–58 ha and appear to be defended (Rigamonti, 1993; Vasey, 2006). Scent-marking tends to take place during territorial battles and female greeting displays. This species’ vocal repertoire is extensive and is employed in numerous contexts. The most characteristic vocalization is the very loud and raucous call, which appears to be used in territorial encounters and for purposes of intragroup spacing (Vasey, 2003).