The black lemur inhabits tropical moist lowland and montane forests from sea level to 1,600 m in the Sambirano region. It is quite adaptable and has been reported from primary forest, secondary forest, forest-agriculture mosaics, and timber plantations (Groves and Eaglen, 1988; Andrews, 1989). It is considered cathemeral, being active day and night throughout the year (Andrews and Birkinshaw, 1998; Colquhoun, 1998a). Group size ranges from 2 to 15 animals, the median range being 7–10 (Petter, 1962a, 1962b; Colquhoun, 1993). During the birth season, intergroup agonistic interactions are most directly related to food access compared with the mating season (Bayart and Simmen, 2005). Females give birth to a single young, usually between September and November (Petter and Petter, 1971). Fruits make up the bulk of its diet throughout the year, except for perhaps a month or so when leaves, seedpods, and nectar take on added significance and are also supplemented by fungi and invertebrates (Petter, 1962a, 1962b; Petter et al., 1977; Andrews and Birkinshaw, 1998; Simmen et al., 2007). Studies in Lokobe Strict Nature Reserve on Nosy Be and in the forests of the Ambato Massif suggest that the black lemur is a significant pollinator of the widespread traveler’s palm (Ravenala madagascariensis) and the legume (Parkia madagascariensis); as it feeds on nectar (Birkinshaw and Colquhoun, 1998). At Lokobe, it also appears to be the sole seed disperser for many tree species (Birkinshaw, 1999a). In Anpasilkely Forest, black lemurs obtain 150–190 kcal from the daytime diet during the birth season, and some introduced plant species were preferred (Simmen et al., 2007).